Between 200 BCE – 600 CE the foundations of a multi-ethnic South African people were established. By the time 1000 years later when the Europeans came, Africans of many different ethnicities lived alongside each other throughout the land. In the 19th century the Europeans propagated that South Africa was an empty land simply populated by a few so-called ‘First People’, argued by them to be related to Europeans as a lost people.
The Full Tapestry of Indigenous African Roots in Camissa African Heritage
- Over 42 Roots of Origin -
ǀXam; !Kwi; !Kun; Nju; Ga ne; Gariep !Eis; Einas; Naningai; Moncoboo
Clans: Sonqua; Ubiqua; Briqua; Horisons
Goringhaiqua; Gorachouqua; Cochoqua; Chariguriqua; Hessequa; Chainouqua; Gouriqua; Outeniqua; Attaqua
‖Ammaqua trader community (aka Watermans, Goringhaicona, Strandloopers)
Namaqua; Hill Damara; Namnykoa; NauGaap; Kaukoa
Griqua; Oorlam Afrikaners; Springboks; Witbooi ǀKhowesen
Gqunukhwebe-Gonaqua & Other Xhosa-Khoe
Gamtoos; Hoengiqua; Ntinde; Giqua; Thathu; Sukwini; Gqwashu; Nqarwane; Cete
Nqgosini (Xhosa branch)
Some BaSotho migrant labourers also integrated with people classified as ‘Coloured’ in the Cape.
Some Tswana migrant labourers also integrated with people classified as ‘Coloured’ in the Cape.
Nguni-Speakers with Khoe, San & Zhizo-Kalanga Foundation People Influences
Besides the KZN Nguni influence there are a whole range of other formations and clans that reside within the amaXhosa Confederacy each with long histories of their own involving San, Khoe & Kalanga roots.
Many Xhosa and Mfengu ended up working in Cape Town and other Cape cities and towns and some also integrated into social groups that became classified as “Coloured”.
Ngqika-Xhosa; Rharhabe–Xhosa; Gcaleka Xhosa; Thembu
The Nguni of KZN are a mix of San, Khoe, Kalanga, Tsonga, eMbo (Rozvi), Hlubi, Tembe & other roots.
Around 15% - 18% of amaXhosa carry San an Khoe mtdna haplogroups.
Bhaca; Hlubi; Mpondo; Mpondomise; Zizi; Bhele; Mfengu
Other Indigenous African
Social Formations with San, Khoe & Kalanga Roots
Along with East, West & Central African genetic & cultural influences, there is strong Kalanga pastoralist roots including San & Khoe foundations among these peoples.
Pedi; Venda; Ndebele; Tsonga; Shona; BaKoni
Hill Damara (Khoe)
Migrant Hill Damara from Namibia were brought as indentured labour to the Western Cape & integrated with ‘Coloured’.