Between 200 BCE – 600 CE the foundations of a multi-ethnic South African people were established. By the time 1000 years later when the Europeans came, Africans of many different ethnicities lived alongside each other throughout the land. In the 19th century the Europeans propagated that South Africa was an empty land simply populated by a few so-called ‘First People’, argued by them to be related to Europeans as a lost people.

The Full Tapestry of Indigenous African Roots in Camissa African Heritage
- Over 42 Roots of Origin -

Cape San

ǀXam; !Kwi; !Kun; Nju; Ga ne; Gariep !Eis; Einas; Naningai; Moncoboo

Clans: Sonqua; Ubiqua; Briqua; Horisons

Cape Khoe

Goringhaiqua; Gorachouqua; Cochoqua; Chariguriqua; Hessequa; Chainouqua; Gouriqua; Outeniqua; Attaqua

‖Ammaqua trader community (aka Watermans, Goringhaicona, Strandloopers)

Gariep Khoe

Namaqua; Hill Damara; Namnykoa; NauGaap; Kaukoa

Griqua; Oorlam Afrikaners; Springboks; Witbooi ǀKhowesen

Gqunukhwebe-Gonaqua & Other Xhosa-Khoe

Inqua; Gonaqua

Gamtoos; Hoengiqua; Ntinde; Giqua; Thathu; Sukwini; Gqwashu; Nqarwane; Cete



Nqgosini (Xhosa branch)
Some BaSotho migrant labourers also integrated with people classified as ‘Coloured’ in the Cape.



Some Tswana migrant labourers also integrated with people classified as ‘Coloured’ in the Cape.

Nguni-Speakers with Khoe, San & Zhizo-Kalanga Foundation People Influences

Besides the KZN Nguni influence there are a whole range of other formations and clans that reside within the amaXhosa Confederacy each with long histories of their own involving San, Khoe & Kalanga roots.

Many Xhosa and Mfengu ended up working in Cape Town and other Cape cities and towns and some also integrated into social groups that became classified as “Coloured”.

Ngqika-Xhosa; Rharhabe–Xhosa; Gcaleka Xhosa; Thembu

The Nguni of KZN are a mix of San, Khoe, Kalanga, Tsonga, eMbo (Rozvi), Hlubi, Tembe & other roots.

Around 15% - 18% of amaXhosa carry San an Khoe mtdna haplogroups.

Other Nguni-Speakers


Bhaca; Hlubi; Mpondo; Mpondomise; Zizi; Bhele; Mfengu

Other Indigenous African
Social Formations with San, Khoe & Kalanga Roots

Along with East, West & Central African genetic & cultural influences, there is strong Kalanga pastoralist roots including San & Khoe foundations among these peoples.

Pedi; Venda; Ndebele; Tsonga; Shona; BaKoni

Hill Damara (Khoe)


Migrant Hill Damara from Namibia were brought as indentured labour to the Western Cape & integrated with ‘Coloured’.


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